Windows will create a temporary profile when it is unable to read the user profile files. Usually people may not notice unless they run into some issues. This will lead to some weird experience like even though the corrupted profile user is an administrator, the account may not able to perform the administrative operations.
Recently I experienced the corrupt user profile or temp user profile in a SharePoint 2013 environment in which the service account used for setting up a web application was behaving strangely. The user account is a local admin in the box, still it is not able to perform the operations and also I see the messages like unable to access resources in the system. I also saw the message “the profile is a temp profile” so I looked at the C:USER folder, surprisingly there is no folder for the account I logged in with, instead there is a temp folder that only I could see. Normally when a user has logged into the system a folder will be created under C:user that will have the exact same name as the user.